St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Coral Microbial Ecology
Coral microbial ecology is the study of the relationship of coral-associated microorganisms to each other, the coral host, and to their environment. Just as we humans have beneficial bacteria living on our skin and in our intestines, corals also have co-habitating non-pathogenic (not disease-causing) microbes. These microbes include bacteria, archaea, and fungi—representing all three of the major domains of life.
What can we learn from studying coral microbial ecology? Why is it important? Coral reefs in the Caribbean have been in decline for several decades. One of the most visible causes is disease. Coral diseases are not well understood, but the few that have been characterized are all caused by microorganisms. In order to understand the diseased state, we must first understand the healthy state. Until now, coral biology studies have been limited to studies of the coral animal, the algal symbiont, or the interactions of the two. Coral microbial-ecology studies contribute a missing piece of information to the study of overall coral biology. It has been speculated that coral-associated bacteria benefit the coral by fixing nitrogen, breaking down waste products, and cycling basic nutrients back to the photosynthetic algal symbionts (zooxanthellae). Bacteria may also ward off other potentially harmful microbes by producing antibiotics or by just occupying the available space.
The coral microbial ecology group has an active research program identifying and characterizing the microbial associates of both tropical and cold-water (deep-sea) corals and their surrounding habitat. Current projects focus on coral disease dynamics, bacterial diversity, and using metagenomics to elucidate the functional roles of coral microbes.
News and Events
Aug. 1–3, 2017: Roger Williams University is sponsoring a workshop aimed at applying the latest research on model organism Astrangia poculata, the Northern Star Coral, to solutions for tropical coral reef health across the globe. Christina Kellogg was invited to bring her expertise in deep-sea coral systems and microbiomes to the workshop this year to develop new research directions.
Kellogg C.A., Goldsmith D.B. and Gray M.A., 2017, Biogeographic comparison of Lophelia-associated bacterial communities in the western Atlantic reveals conserved core microbiome, Frontiers in Microbiology, 8:796 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00796.
Kellogg, C.A., S.D. Brooke, and S.W. Ross, 2016, Bacterial community diversity of the deep-sea octocoral Paramuricea placomus: PeerJ 4:e2529, doi: 10.7717/peerj.2529.
Lawler, S.N., C.A. Kellogg, S.C. France, R.W. Clostio, S.D. Brooke, and S.W. Ross, 2016, Coral-associated bacterial diversity is conserved across two deep-sea Anthothela species: Frontiers in Microbiology 7:458, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00458.
Kellogg, C.A., K.K. Yates, S.N. Lawler, C.S. Moore, and N.A. Smiley, 2015, Seasonal microbial and environmental parameters at Crocker Reef, Florida Keys, 2014-2015: USGS Open-File Report 2015-1203, 12 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151203.
Kellogg, C.A., Y.M. Piceno, L.M. Tom, T.Z. DeSantis, M.A. Gray, and G.L. Andersen, 2014, Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean: PLOS ONE 9(10): e108767.
Kellogg, C.A., Piceno, Y.M., Tom, L.M., DeSantis, T.Z., Gray, M.A., et al., 2013, Comparing Bacterial Community Composition between Healthy and White Plague-Like Disease States in Orbicella annularis Using PhyloChip™ G3 Microarrays: PLoS ONE 8(11): e79801, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079801.
Gray, M.A., Pratte, Z.A., and Kellogg, C.A., 2013, Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 83: 468-477, doi: 10.1111/1574-6941.12008.
Galkiewicz, J.P., Stellick, S.H., Gray, M.A., and Kellogg, C.A., 2012, Cultured fungal associates from the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa. Deep-Sea Research I 67: 12-20.
Kellogg, C.A., Piceno, Y.M., Tom, L.M., DeSantis, T.Z., Zawada, D.G., and Andersen, G.L., 2012, PhyloChip™ microarray comparison of sampling methods used for coral microbial ecology. Journal of Microbiological Methods 88:103-109.
Galkiewicz, J.P., Pratte, Z.A., Gray, M.A., and Kellogg, C.A., 2011, Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 77:333-346.
Gray, M.A., Stone, R.P., McLaughlin, M.R., and Kellogg, C.A., 2011, Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 76: 109-120.
Kellogg, C.A., 2010, Enumeration of viruses and prokaryotes in deep-sea sediments and cold seeps of the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research II 57: 2002-2007.
Diving into Coral Disease