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Image Processing Methods
Procedures in selection, registration, normalization and enhancement of satellite imagery in coastal wetlands

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISCLAIMER
Illustrations
Tables
Equations
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1: IMAGE
PROCESSING METHODS
1.1    SCENE SELECTION
1.1.1 Season
1.1.2 Water Level
1.1.3 Cloud cover
1.1.4 Simultaneous coverage
1.1.5 Specifications
1.2 SCENE PREPARATION
1.2.1 Download raw imagery
1.2.2 Check header file
1.2.3 Visual check
1.2.4 Line replacement
and destriping
1.3 ORTHORECTIFICATION
OF IMAGERY
1.3.1 Coordinate System
1.3.2 Ground control in image
1.3.3 Ground control in field
1.3.4 Create model
1.3.5 Satellite image
rectification
1.3.6 Accuracy check
1.4 RADIOMETRIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC
CORRECTIONS
1.4.1 Radiometric correction
1.4.2 Atmospheric correction
1.4.3 Aerosol correction
1.5 INDICES
1.5.1 Vegetation Index
1.5.2 Wetness Index
1.5.3 Temperature
1.5.4 Water Reflectance
CHAPTER 2: IMAGE
PROCESSING SOFTWARE
PROCEDURES
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 SCENE PREPARATION
2.2 ORTHORECTIFICATION
OF IMAGERY
2.2.1 GCPWORKS
2.2.2 GCPREP
2.2.3 SMODEL
2.2.4 CIM2 - New file
creation
2.2.5 GEOSET - georeference
segment
2.2.6 SORTHO - satellite image
orthorectification
2.2.7 Inter-scene accuracy check
2.3 RADIOMETRIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION
2.3.1 TMRAD
2.3.2 RAYRAD -
Rayleigh radiance
2.3.3 Dark object
subtraction
2.4 INDICES
2.4.1 Bitmap creation
2.4.2 Vegetation Index
2.4.3 Wetness Index
2.4.4 Thermal band 6
temperature
2.4.5 Water reflectance
2.4.6 Brightness
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A:
Image Pre-Processing Outline
APPENDIX B:
Sample Header File
APPENDIX C:
SMODEL Report
APPENDIX D:
Data Storage
 
Acknowledgments

Thank you to Greg Ferrara and Rachel Stanley for manuscript review, and to Martha Caldwell and Melanie Harris for testing our techniques.


References

Chavez, P.S., Jr., 1989, Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 55(9):1285-1294.

Dobson, J.E., E.A. Bright, R.L. Ferguson, D.W. Field, L.L. Wood, K.D. Haddad, H. Iredale, J.R. Jensen, V.V. Klemas, R.J. Orth, J.P. Thomas. 1995. NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP): Guidance for Regional Implementation. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 123, NOAA NMFS, Seattle, Washington, 92 p.

Jensen, J.R., D.J. Cowen, J.D. Althausen, S. Narumalani, O. Weatherbee, 1993, The detection and prediction of sea level changes on coastal wetlands using satellite imagery and a geographic information system, Geocarto International 4: 87-98.

Markham, B.L. and J.L. Barker, 1985. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors. International Journal of Remote Sensing 6: 697-716.

Markham, B.L. and J.L. Barker, 1986, Landsat MSS and TM Post-Calibration Dynamic Ranges, Exoatmospheric Reflectances and At-Satellite Temperatures, EOSAT Landsat Technical Notes, August 1986, p. 3-8.

Price, J.C., 1987. Calibration of satellite radiometers and the comparison of vegetation indices. Remote Sensing of Environment 21: 15-27.

Raabe, E.A. and R.P. Stumpf, 1997, Assessment of acreage and vegetation change in Floridašs Big Bend tidal wetlands using satellite imagery, Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, ERIM, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, 17-19 March 1997, Orlando, Fl. Volume I: 84-93.

Stumpf, R.P., 1992, Remote sensing of water quality in coastal waters, Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments Proceedings, Needs and Solutions for Pollution Monitoring, Control and Abatement, SPIE 1930, Vol 1, pp. 293-305, ERIM, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Appendix A
Image Pre-Processing Outline

  1. Scene selection
      A. Season
      B. Water level
      C. Cloud cover
      D. Simultaneous coverage of multiple path/row
      E. Specifications: NN, SOM, CD-ROM format,...

  2. Scene prep
      A. Download imagery and header files from CD-ROM or tape format
      B. Check header and trailer files - create orbital segment if possible
      C. Visual check of imagery - repair missing data lines where necessary
      D. Attempt destriping - abort if unsuccessful

  3. Orthorectification of imagery
      A. Coordinate system
      B. Image ground control
      C. Field ground control
      D. User-entered coordinates
      E. Model of ground control and orbital segment
      F. Rectify raw imagery to new file using model
      G. Accuracy check on registration
      1. Check against UTM coordinates
      2. Check inter-scene registration

  4. Radiometric enhancement and atmospheric corrections
      A. Transform raw digital count values to reflectance
      B. Calulate Rayleigh coefficients
      C. Dark water subtraction - subtract to 0's
      D. Create image-pixel only bitmap
      E. Model image pixels of value 0 to value 1

  5. Create indices
      A. Vegetation index (NDVI)
      B. Wetness index
      C. Temperature
      D. Water reflectance
      E. Brightness

  6. Data storage and documentation


Appendix B
Sample Header File

NDF_REVISION=0.00;
PRODUCT_NUMBER=01196082300470006;
DATA_FILE_INTERLEAVING=BSQ;
TAPE_SPANNING_FLAG=1/1;
START_LINE_NUMBER=1;
START_DATA_FILE=1;
BLOCKING_FACTOR=1;
MAP_PROJECTION_NAME=SPACE_OBLIQUE_MERC;
USGS_PROJECTION_NUMBER=22;
USGS_MAP_ZONE=62;
USGS_PROJECTION_PARAMETERS=6378388.000000000000000,6356911.946130000100000,5.000
000000000000,17.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.0000000000
00000,0.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.
000000000000000,1.000000000000000,0.000000000000000,0.000000000000000;
HORIZONTAL_DATUM=WGS84;
EARTH_ELLIPSOID_SEMI-MAJOR_AXIS=6378137.000;
EARTH_ELLIPSOID_SEMI-MINOR_AXIS=6356752.314;
EARTH_ELLIPSOID_ORIGIN_OFFSET=0.000,0.000,0.000;
EARTH_ELLIPSOID_ROTATION_OFFSET=0.000000,0.000000,0.000000;
PRODUCT_SIZE=FULL_SCENE;
RESAMPLING=NN;
PROCESSING_DATE/TIME=082896/08063200;
PROCESSING_SOFTWARE=NLAPS_2_0_2;
DATA_SET_TYPE=EDC_TM;
PIXEL_FORMAT=BYTE;
PIXEL_ORDER=NOT_INVERTED;
BITS_PER_PIXEL=8;
PIXELS_PER_LINE=6894;
LINES_PER_DATA_FILE=6393;
DATA_ORIENTATION=UPPER_LEFT/RIGHT;
NUMBER_OF_DATA_FILES=7;
LINES_PER_VOLUME=44751;
RECORD_SIZE=6894;
UPPER_LEFT_CORNER=0833533.3934W,0294853.5306N,16791740.861,339718.034;
UPPER_RIGHT_CORNER=0813527.3764W,0293125.9445N,16803578.471,535811.556;
LOWER_RIGHT_CORNER=0815436.0583W,0275416.8972N,16985419.440,524834.333;
LOWER_LEFT_CORNER=0835254.1423W,0281128.3854N,16973581.831,328740.811;
REFERENCE_POINT=SCENE_CENTER;
REFERENCE_POSITION=0824437.0448W,0285144.7804N,16888580.150,432276.187,3447.50,3197.0
REFERENCE_OFFSET=-193.11,15.18;
ORIENTATION=273.454591;
WRS=017/040.0;
ACQUISITION_DATE/TIME=050885/15314248;
SATELLITE=LANDSAT_5;
SATELLITE_INSTRUMENT=TM;
PIXEL_SPACING=28.5000,28.5000;
PIXEL_SPACING_UNITS=METERS;
PROCESSING_LEVEL=08;
SUN_ELEVATION=61.76;
SUN_AZIMUTH=108.55;
NUMBER_OF_BANDS_IN_VOLUME=7;
BAND1_NAME=TM_BAND_1;
BAND1_WAVELENGTHS=0.45,0.52;
BAND1_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.6024314,-1.5200000;
BAND2_NAME=TM_BAND_2;
BAND2_WAVELENGTHS=0.52,0.60;
BAND2_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=1.1750981,-2.8399999;
BAND3_NAME=TM_BAND_3;
BAND3_WAVELENGTHS=0.63,0.69;
BAND3_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.8057647,-1.1700000;
BAND4_NAME=TM_BAND_4;
BAND4_WAVELENGTHS=0.76,0.90;
BAND4_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.8145490,-1.5100000;
BAND5_NAME=TM_BAND_5;
BAND5_WAVELENGTHS=1.55,1.75;
BAND5_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.1080784,-0.3700000;
BAND6_NAME=TM_BAND_6;
BAND6_WAVELENGTHS=10.40,12.50;
BAND6_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.0551582,1.2377996;
BAND7_NAME=TM_BAND_7;
BAND7_WAVELENGTHS=2.08,2.35;
BAND7_RADIOMETRIC_GAINS/BIAS=0.0569804,-0.1500000;
END_OF_HDR


Appendix C

SMODEL  Satellite Model Calculation             V6.0 EASI/PACE  10:34 04-Dec-96
 
Report File : fltms/tm88smod3.txt                                             

Using GCPs stored in the GCP segment :

GCPID         CALCULATED GCP                    RESIDUE (Metre)
                X                    Y                       X             Y             RMS
    1      269716.91       3284028.64         1.09       -0.64        1.26
    2      328575.40       3232963.42       -10.40        0.58       10.42
    3      331799.21       3266272.27         5.79        6.73        8.88
    4      400117.75       3235478.61        10.25       -0.61       10.27
    5      403824.55       3228838.33       -10.26       -1.93       10.44
    6      339244.69       3191071.87        -6.69      -10.87       12.76
    7      348310.68       3166255.36        12.32        1.64       12.43
    8      370506.11       3126170.90        -2.11        5.10        5.52

                                   RMS        8.90        5.30       10.36

RESIDUE ERRORS FOR CHECK POINTS:

GCPID       CALCULATED CHECK POINT               ERRORS (Metre)
             X               Y                X           Y           RMS
   -19      299418.73       3233029.69        -0.73       -7.69        7.73
     -9      329124.94       3116528.16         1.06       -5.16        5.27
  -10      327671.62       3126505.34        11.38       -7.34       13.54
  -11      329711.82       3126556.48        -1.82       -3.48        3.92
  -12      330920.87       3130030.77         2.13       -6.77        7.10
  -13      330055.45       3130044.83        -0.45      -13.83       13.84
  -14      339940.18       3149448.61        -5.18       -3.61        6.31
  -15      343565.03       3187000.57         5.97        6.43        8.78
  -16      366101.40       3197847.99        -8.40        8.01       11.61
  -17      335025.94       3199333.66       -12.94       -6.66       14.55
  -18      311824.53       3236336.17         0.47      -12.17       12.17

                                   RMS        6.63        8.36       10.68

N02 (2 X ellipsoid normal) :                0.1276623423925591D+08
aa (Unknown tied to earth rotation) :       -.2019698071206954D-02
ALPHA (IFOV) :                              0.4250000000000000D-04
bb (Unknown of 2nd order) :                 0.5159405145974503D-08
C0 (Scene centre column) :                  0.3441000000000000D+04
cc (Unknown of 2nd order):                  -.1011490548231246D-08
COSKHI (Parameter):                         0.9986239362292677D+00
DELGAM (Unknown of 2nd order):              -.5228374067336880D-08
GAMMA (Scene orient. rel. to the North):    0.1804139211480550D+00
K_1 (Cross track scale function):           0.1650305501958989D-05
L0 (Scene centre row):                      0.3209500000000000D+04
P (Along track scale function):             0.2850017693250296D+02
Q (Satellite-Scene centre dist):            0.6704364897025154D+06
TAU (Levelling angle along track dir):      -.5251493727041531D-01
THETA (Levelling angle across track dir):   0.3593993241522756D-02
THETAS (THETA/COS_KHI):                     0.3598945620203554D-02
X0 (Carto coord of scene centre):           0.3259051885403947D+06
Y0 (Carto coord of scene centre):           0.3194585202192697D+07
DELH (Radar parameter in H dir.):           0.0000000000000000D+00
COEFY2 (Radar parameter in Y2 dir.):        0.0000000000000000D+00

EARTH ELLIPSOID USED : E012


Appendix D
DATA STORAGE



Coastal and Marine Program > St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center > Research by Theme > Gulf of Mexico Tidal Wetlands > Image Processing Methods - OFR 97-287 > Appendices
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