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Image Processing Methods
Procedures in selection, registration, normalization and enhancement of satellite imagery in coastal wetlands

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISCLAIMER
Illustrations
Tables
Equations
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1: IMAGE
PROCESSING METHODS
1.1    SCENE SELECTION
1.1.1 Season
1.1.2 Water Level
1.1.3 Cloud cover
1.1.4 Simultaneous coverage
1.1.5 Specifications
1.2 SCENE PREPARATION
1.2.1 Download raw imagery
1.2.2 Check header file
1.2.3 Visual check
1.2.4 Line replacement
and destriping
1.3 ORTHORECTIFICATION
OF IMAGERY
1.3.1 Coordinate System
1.3.2 Ground control in image
1.3.3 Ground control in field
1.3.4 Create model
1.3.5 Satellite image
rectification
1.3.6 Accuracy check
1.4 RADIOMETRIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC
CORRECTIONS
1.4.1 Radiometric correction
1.4.2 Atmospheric correction
1.4.3 Aerosol correction
1.5 INDICES
1.5.1 Vegetation Index
1.5.2 Wetness Index
1.5.3 Temperature
1.5.3 Water Reflectance
CHAPTER 2: IMAGE
PROCESSING SOFTWARE
PROCEDURES
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 SCENE PREPARATION
2.2 ORTHORECTIFICATION
OF IMAGERY
2.2.1 GCPWORKS
2.2.2 GCPREP
2.2.3 SMODEL
2.2.4 CIM2 - New file
creation
2.2.5 GEOSET - georeference
segment
2.2.6 SORTHO - satellite image
orthorectification
2.2.7 Inter-scene accuracy check
2.3 RADIOMETRIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION
2.3.1 TMRAD
2.3.2 RAYRAD -
Rayleigh radiance
2.3.3 Dark object
subtraction
2.4 INDICES
2.4.1 Bitmap creation
2.4.2 Vegetation Index
2.4.3 Wetness Index
2.4.4 Thermal band 6
temperature
2.4.5 Water reflectance
2.4.6 Brightness
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A:
Image Pre-Processing Outline
APPENDIX B:
Sample Header File
APPENDIX C:
SMODEL Report
APPENDIX D:
Data Storage
 
DISCLAIMER:  This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in the report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards.

Print copies of this report may be purchased from:

U.S. Geological Survey
St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701

Illustrations
[each of these selections, except Figure 1, will open in a new window]
Figure 1. Big Bend study area on Florida's Gulf coast
Figure 2. Rectification and reprojection to UTM, Landsat Path 17, Row 40
Figure 3. Rectification and reprojection to UTM, Landsat Path 18, Row 39
Plate 1. Misregistration and acceptable inter-scene registration for 1985 and 1995
Plate 2. Right-angle road intersection for inter-scene registration check
Plate 3. Preferred locations for inter-scene accuracy check, Chassahowitzka, FL, 1995
Plate 4. PCI procedure flow chart

Tables
Table 1. Landsat TM images and Cedar Key water level at time of overpass
Table 2. Scene size and coordinates for georeferencing segment
Table 3. CDNLAPS procedure parameters
Table 4. LRP, line replacement parameters
Table 5. SMODEL procedure parameters
Table 6. Creation of new file for rectification in CIM2
Table 7. Georeferencing segment set with GEOSET procedure in PCI
Table 8. Parameters for satellite orthorectification procedure
Table 9. Bitmap creation with THR
Table 10. EASI procedure TMRAD
Table 11. TMRAD output
Table 12. RAYRAD input
Table 13. RAYRAD output
Table 14. Rayleigh subtraction model
Table 15. Darkwater values:
Table 16. Calculation of NDVI using EASI RTR
Table 17. Calculation of the wetness index with EASI ARI
Table 18. Calculation of water reflectance with EASI ARI procedure

Equations
Equation 1. Reflectance calibration
Equation 2. Radiance
Equation 3. NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index)
Equation 4. Wetness index
Equation 5. Temperature in Celsius
Equation 6. Water Reflectance
Equation 7. EASI model for NDVI
Equation 8. EASI model for Wetness Index
Equation 9. EASI model for temperature in Celsius
Equation 10. EASI model for Water reflectance


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Updated January 04, 2013 @ 10:28 AM (THF)